It's very simple, they are magical weights. Cheetara is a cleric in training. She needs the resistance to make her stronger. But the weights are much more than just that, they are metaphorical as well. Though we haven't revealed her past, like her guilt, the weights hold her back from her true potential.
I love the one on the far left. It looks very athletic yet it reminds me a little of Panthera. Maybe her costume in the show will get an upgrade like Tygra's now that they found technology? Just saying.